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(1.) The substance of the tradition prevalent among all na-
tions, p. 49.

(2.) The tradition embodied in the national mythology and
religion of every people, p. 50.

2. Physiological proof, built upon the existing phenomena of
the globe which we inhabit, p. 52.

(1.) No circumstance is more thoroughly established in geo-
logy, than that the crust of our globe has been subjected
to a great and sudden revolution by the agency of water,
p. 52.

(2.) Various physical matters testify, that this great revolu-
tion cannot have happened at a more remote period than
five or six thousand years ago, p. 53.

3. Moral proof, built upon the progress of civilization, p. 60.
(1.) Civilization has always a natural tendency to spread
itself more and more widely, while barbarism has a
natural tendency to contract itself within more and more
narrow limits, p. 60.

(2.) With this view of the matter, all history, down to the
present time, perfectly agrees, p. 61.

(3.) The necessary inference from such facts, p. 63.

II. The additional fact, of a direct intercourse between man and
his Creator or (in other words) of a revelation from God to
man, demonstrated from the established fact of an universal
deluge, p. 63.

1. The supposition that the deluge did not cover the tops of
the mountains and that men and animals preserved them-
selves by escaping to their summits, shown to be untena-
ble, p. 65.

2. The supposition, that a family escaped in a ship built acci-
dentally and not in consequence of a divine revelation,
shown to be equally untenable, p. 66.

3. The final result is, that, if the fact of the deluge be admitted,
we shall find ourselves compelled to admit also the addi-
tional fact, that a revelation of God's purposes to his crea-
ture man has assuredly taken place as we find it recorded
in Holy Scripture, p. 63.

SECTION IV.

The difficulties attendant upon deistical Infidelity in regard to actually
accomplished prophecy, p. 69.

The prediction, selected as a specimen of the argument from accom-
plished prophecy, shall be that of Moses respecting the future
destinies and fortunes of the Jews, p. 70.

I. Abstract of the prophecy, p. 70.

II. View of the accomplishment of the prophecy, p. 72.

1. Its accomplishment has taken place in all 'the numerous
particulars of which it is composed, p. 72.

(1.) The first particular, p. 73.
(2.) The second particular, p. 74.
(3.) The third particular, p. 74.
(4.) The fourth particular, p. 75.
(5.) The fifth particular, p. 75.
(6.) The sixth particular, p. 76.
(7.) The seventh particular, p. 76.
(8.) The eighth particular, p. 76.
(9.) The ninth particular, p. 77.

2. The estimate of their own situation by the Jews themselves
p. 77.

III. The train of reasoning, which springs from the prophecy and
its accomplishment, p. 81.

1. Insufficiency of the first possible deistical solution: the poli-
tical foresight and sagacity of Moses, p. 83.

2. Insufficiency of the second possible deistical solution: a

lucky accident, p. 84.

(1.) Essential difference between the leading characteristic of
the real prophecy of Moses, namely complexity; and
the leading characteristic of the pretended prophecy of
Seneca, namely indefinite simplicity, p. 85.

(2.) Dissimilarity in the grounds and reasons, on which each

prophecy is supported, p. 88.

(3.) A tradition of the discovery of America by the Pheni-
cians was not unknown to Seneca: whence his prophecy
becomes a mere poetical ornament, p. 89.

IV. Summary of the argument, p. 92.

SECTION V.

The difficulties attendant upon deistical Infidelity in regard to the
facts and circumstances and character of the Christian Dispen-
sation, p. 94.

No small difficulties also attend upon Infidelity in regard to the
facts and circumstances and character of the Christian Dispen-
sation, p. 94.

I. The present existence of Christianity is a naked fact: hence
the only question between the believer and the unbeliever is,
how it first started into existence, p. 94.

1. The account of its rise and progress is contained in the his-
torical books of the New Testament, p. 94.

2. Suppressing for the present the question of miraculous in-
terference, we may say, that to deny the praise of general
veracity to the narrative is to unhinge all historical evi
dence, p. 95.

3. Speculations of Mr. Volney as to the personal existence of
Christ, p. 98.

4. Conclusion as to the character of the evangelical histories,
p. 99.

II. The infidel, on his princíples, must maintain, that Christ was
either an impostor or an enthusiast, p. 100.

1. The difficulties attendant upon the hypothesis, that Christ
was an impostor, p. 100.

(1.) Statement and practical demonstration of the necessary
conduct of an impostor, as an impostor, in the times
during which Christ appeared, p. 102.

(2.) Statement of the actual directly opposite conduct of
Christ, p. 104.

2. The difficulties attendant upon the hypothesis, that Christ
was an enthusiast, p. 115.

(1.) The sobriety of Christ's conduct, as exemplified in his
words, p. 116.

(2.) The sobriety of Christ's conduct, as exemplified in his
actions, p. 119.

3. Numerous contingencies were associated with his claim of
the Messiahship, which were quite out of the control either
of an impostor or of an enthusiast, p. 122.

III. The conduct of the apostles and first preachers of Chris-

tianity, p. 126.

1. The common notion entertained by infidels respecting the
apostles, p. 127.

2. The difficulties attendant upon this notion, p. 129.

(1.) The first stage of the proceedings of the apostles, p. 129.
(2.) The second stage of the proceedings of the apostles,

p. 131.

3. The effects produced by the alleged resurrection of Christ.
Grounds for believing the truth of the alleged fact. Diffi-
culties attendant upon the denial of it, p. 138.

4. Evidence specially afforded by the conduct of two of the
apostles, p. 145.

(1.) Conduct of Judas the traitor, p. 145.

(2.) Conduct of Paul, first a persecutor, then a convert,
p. 148.

SECTION VI.

The difficulties attendant upon deistical Infidelity in regard to the
rapid propagation of Christianity and the evidence by which the
performance of miracles is supported, p. 157.

The necessity of accounting for the fact of the rapid propagation of
Christianity is felt and acknowledged by all, p. 157.

I. A consideration of the five natural reasons or causes proposed
by Mr. Gibbon as sufficient to account for the fact, p. 157.

1. The first reason: the inflexible and intolerant zeal of the
early Christians, p. 158.

2. The second reason: the doctrine of a future life, p. 160.
3. The third reason: the miraculous powers ascribed to the
primitive Church, p. 161.

4. The fourth reason: the pure and austere morals of the
primitive Christians, p. 162.

5. The fifth reason: the union and discipline of the Church,
p. 164.

II. Concerning the aspect, which Christianity must have presented
to the Gentiles at its first promulgation among them: and
whether Mr. Gibbon's five reasons are sufficient to account
for its success, p. 164.

III. A consideration of the two supernatural reasons proposed in
Scripture, p. 172.

1. The first reason: the operation of the Holy Spirit to incline
the heart, p. 172.

2. The second reason: the performance of miracles to con-
vince the head, p. 174.

(1.) The testimony, by which the performance of works pur-
porting to be miraculous, is established, p. 178.
(2.) The evidence, by which these works are proved to have
been real, not simulated miracles, p. 187.

SECTION VII.

The difficulties attendant upon deistical Infidelity in regard to the
internal evidence of Christianity, p. 194.

In discussing the internal evidence of Christianity, two particulars
only shall be selected, as a specimen of the mode of reasoning
from it, p. 194.

I. The character of Christ, p. 194.

1. The favourite ideal character of a hero variously exemplified,
p. 195.

2. The opposite character of Christ, p. 197.

3. Conclusion drawn from the contrast, p. 199.

II. The spirit of Christianity, p. 201.

1. The spirit of confessedly false religions, 201.
(1.) The Scandinavian theology of Odin, p. 201.
(2.) The Arabic theology of Mohammed, p. 202.
(3.) The imposture of Alexander of Pontus, p. 204.
(4.) The theologico-political system of Hindostan, p. 205.
2. The directly opposite spirit of Christianity, p. 207.
3. Conclusion drawn from the contrast, p. 209.

SECTION VIII,

Recapitulation and Conclusion, p. 211.

Previous to the general conclusion, the several difficulties which en-
cumber the march of Infidelity, shall be briefly recapitulated,
p. 211.

1. The difficulties in question are as follows, p. 211.

1. The insufficient grounds and reasons of Infidelity itself,
p. 211.

2. The impossibility, on infidel principles, of either proving
the unity of God, or of developing his moral attributes,
p. 211.

3. The difficulties of Infidelity in regard to historical matters
of fact, p. 212.

4. The difficulties of Infidelity in regard to accomplished pro-
phecy, p. 212.

5. The difficulties of Infidelity in regard to the facts and cir-
cumstances and character of the Christian Dispensation,
p. 213.

6. The difficulties of Infidelity in regard to the rapid propaga
tion of Christianity, p. 213.

7. The difficulties of Infidelity in regard to the internal evi-
dence of Christianity, p. 213.

11. General conclusion from the whole discussion, that the rejec-
tion of Christianity involves a higher degree of credulity
than the acceptance of it, and that we find it more difficult
to pronounce the Gospel an imposture than to admit it as a
revelation from heaven, p. 214.

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