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the other. By the teaching of the New Testament we are encouraged to put ourselves under the guidance of the Church so far as it extends. looking to it for the form or outline of sound words, which it supplies to us in the Creed. To Scripture, on the other hand, the Church bids us look as filling in and giving substance to the outline of faith which we have already received in the Creed. But within and beyond the Bible and the Church there is a guide of whom we in practice think too little. We ought to trust to that unction from the Holy One which rests on Christians, unveiling to us as we are able to bear it the inexhaustible significance of our holy faith and illuminating for us the Scriptures which enshrine it. 'We have a Lord,' says Chrysostom, who loves mankind, and when He sees us anxious and strongly desirous of understanding the divine oracles, He does not leave us destitute of ought besides, but straightway enlightens our understanding, bestows that illumination which proceeds from Himself, and according to His benign wisdom communicates all true doctrine to our souls'.' Thus the means which God has placed within our reach are all to be used in combination: we are to hear the Church, and then to diligently search the Scriptures; but above all, we are to remember that God will give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him. This simple reflection is intended to reassure us in view of the great complexity of all human questions, and the obvious fragmentariness of even the highest human knowledge. We may be confident that the Spirit of Truth will not allow us to be deceived in any essential matter if we diligently ask Him to enlighten us and to guide. Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty2. It is remarkable that this statement occurs in connexion with St. Paul's complaint that a veil is upon

1

Opera [ed. Ben.], iv. p. 216. Cp. Orig. hom. xii. in Exod. § 4: 'Non solum studium adhibendum est ad discendas literas sacras, verum et supplicandum Domino, et diebus et noctibus obsecrandum, ut veniat Agnus ex tribu Juda, et ipse accipiens librum signatum dignetur aperire.' To the same effect Aug. de doct. iii. s. fin.

2 2 Cor. iii. 17.

Israel's heart in the reading of the old testament. That veil is done away in Christ through the power of the converting Spirit. And we Christians need Origen's caution that it is possible for a veil to be on our hearts if we are either negligent in the study of Scripture, or if we take no pains to acquire the knowledge necessary for a true comprehension of its teaching 1. We stand over against Holy Scripture, not as literalists, or slaves of the letter, but as children of God guided by the same Spirit who possessed and inspired the sacred writers. We do not doubt the truth of our Christianity because we see in part, and know only in part; because in this world of half-lights and impenetrable shadows our knowledge is at best fragmentary and imperfect. On the same principle we have no reason to be dismayed or perplexed at the blending of human frailty with the unearthly majesty and mystery of the Scriptures. We have this treasure, the word of God, in earthen vessels 2; and while it is a sign of levity to overlook the treasure and throw it away because the vessels are of earth, it is a mark of narrowness to ignore the distinction between the vessels and the treasure they contain. Just as the remarkable religious revival of the last half-century has enabled us to realize the power and presence of the Holy Spirit in the public life and active ministry of the Christian Church, so questions respecting the inspiration and character of the Bible remind us of His continuous work in the immediate guidance and edification of individual souls 3. An era of difficulties, mental and

1 Orig. loc. cit. 'Manifeste si negligenter audimus, si nihil studii ad eruditionem et intelligentiam conferimus, non solum Legis et Prophetarum scriptura, sed et Apostolorum et Evangeliorum grandi nobis velamine tegitur.'

2

2 Cor. iv. 7. For what follows see some remarks of Frank quoted by Köhler, Über Berechtigung der Kritik des A. T. pp. 48, 49.

3 Tyndale, Works, vol. iii. p. 139 [Parker Society], quoted by Briggs, Biblical Study, p. 163, says: "For though the Scripture be an outward instrument and the preacher also to move men to believe, yet the chief and principal cause why a man believeth or believeth not is within; that is, the Spirit of God leadeth His children to believe.'

1

spiritual, is meant to reawaken in men the spirit of dependence on Him whose real presence in souls is the source of present consolation and of unquenchable hope for the future. The modern student may heartily endorse the noble words of Origen: 'We cannot declare that anything in the literature of the Holy Spirit is otiose or superfluous, even though to some it appears obscure. But our main concern should be this to turn the eyes of our mind to Him at whose bidding these things were written, and to beg from Him the capacity to understand the same; that whether there be infirmity in our own soul, He may heal us who heals all its sicknesses; or whether we be limited in comprehension, He may be present with us as a Lord protecting His little ones, and may so nurture us as to bring us to the full stature of spiritual manhood1.' Yes; the secret of liberty, of largeness of heart and of steadfastness in the faith is with Him. Ye have an anointing from the Holy One, and ye know all things.

And as for you, the anointing which ye received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any one teach you; but as his anointing teacheth you concerning all things and is true, and is no lie, and even as it taught you, abide ye in him 2.

1 Orig. in Num. hom. xxvii. 1.

21 John ii. 20, 27 (R. V. marg.).

INDEX

Abraham, history of, III, 118;
idealization of, 125; place in the
thought of St. Paul, 397.

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Baethgen, III.

Balaam, prophecy of, 298.
Baruch, Apocalypse of, 350.
Bath Qôl, the, 316.

Bible, the, its analogy to the incar-
nate Word, 15 fol.; to nature,
98 foll.

Blood, use of, in sacrifice, 237 foll.;
255 foll.

Briggs, C., quoted, 405.
Browning, E., quoted, 352.
Browning, R., quoted, 15, 370.
Bruce, Dr. A., quoted, 13, 62, III,
139, 165, 179, 229, 248, 306, 321,
381.
Bruce, W. S., quoted, 193, 223.

Burnt-offering, the, 235, 240; daily,
241; fulfilled in Christ, 253.
Butler, Bishop, 165.

Cabbala, the, 406.

Calf-worship, the, 221.

Canaanites, slaughter of the, 178.
Canon of the Old Testament, its

formation, 100, 265 foll.
Carchemish, battle of, 309.
Catholic, the term, I foll.
Channing, quoted, 133.
Chesed, 199, 291.

Cheyne, Prof. T., quoted, 203, 346.
CHRIST, authority of, in relation to
the Old Testament, 46 foll.; sacri-
fice of, 228, 253 foll.; on priesthood
of, 251; His view of the Old Testa-
ment, 381 foll.; His person and
work the key to the Old Testa-
ment, 396 foll.; parabolic teach-
ing of, 391, 407.

Chronicles, Books of, 102, 149, 223,
327, 344, 385; teaching and pur-
port of, 357.

Chrysostom, quoted, 441.

Church, doctrine of the, 51 foll.;
relation to the Bible, 441.
Church, Dean, quoted, 81, 118.
Circumcision, 167, 222.
Corinthian Church, 6.

Cornill, quoted, 242, 272, 288.
Covenant, idea of the, 79 foll., 207
foll.; the new, 227, 312 foll.
Covenant, Book of the, 138, 171.
Creation, story of, 57 foll.
Criticism, the higher, results of, 33

foll.; defects pointed out in, 41.
Cultus, the Hebrew, its purpose,

228.

Curé de Canton, 283.

Dalman, quoted, 66.

Daniel, Book of, 276, 317, 331.
Darmesteter, quoted, 33, 41, 206.
David, character of, idealized, 127;
reign of, 299 foll.

Day of Jehovah, the, 284, 304.
Death, Hebrew conception of, 336.
Deborah, song of, 155.
Decalogue, the, 75, 172, 215 foll.
Delitzsch, quoted, 347.

Deuteronomy, Book of, 123, 133, 145,
169, 173, 219.

Deutsch, E., quoted, 434..
Driver, Prof., quoted, 65, 120, 296.

Ecclesiastes, Book of, 190, 347 foll. ;
relation of, to the problem of
suffering, 364, 367 foll.

'El, 'El Elyon, 183 foll., 189 foll.
Election, the idea of, 64 foll.; re-
jected by Kuenen, 116.
Elijah, 273.
Elilim, 72.

'Elohim, 183 foll., 189 foll.; applied
to King, 302.
Elohist writer, the, 119.
'El Shaddai, 185, 191 foll.
Enoch, Book of, 318.
Esdras, Fourth book of, 76.
Esther, Book of, 330, 356.
Eucharist, the, 254, 258 foll.
Evolution, the idea of, 43.
Ewald, quoted, 19, 28, 75, 1OI.
Exile, literary activity during the,
121; effects of the, 310 foll.
Exodus, the, importance of, 69 foll.,
134; evidence of, 94.
Exodus, Book of, its teaching and
purport, 93 foll., 138 foll.
Experience, function of Christian,
49 foll.

Ezekiel, 144; teaching of, 201, 307,
314, 324, 340; torah of, 224, 230.
Ezra, 266, 326.

Ezra, Book of, 149, 358.

Fall, account of the, 59 foll.
Fatherhood of God, 204.

Fire, use of, in sacrifice, 238, 240.
Firstborn, sanctification of the, 136,

222.

Flood, the, 60 foll.

Froude, Prof., quoted, 361.

Future life, Old Testament doctrine
of a, 334 foll.

445

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Habakkuk, 309.

Haggadah, 124, 149, 384, 386 foll.
Haggai, 314.

Hagiographa, the, 95, 329 foll.
Halachah, 384, 386.

Hebrews, Epistle to the, 225, 227,
246, 250 foll., 393.

Hengstenberg, quoted, 356.
Hexateuch, narratives of the, 101.
Historical documents in the Old
Testament, their character and
value, 102 foll.

Historical element in the Old Testa-
ment, 97 foll., 401 foll.

Holiness, idea of, in Old Testa-
ment, 72 foll.
Holocausts, 240.
Holy One of Israel, 196.

HOLY SPIRIT, the, in relation to the
Bible and the Church, 441.
Hosea, teaching of, 200, 290.

Idealistic language of the Old Testa-
ment, its significance, 419.
Idealization in the Pentateuch, &c.,
119 foll.
Image worship, 174.

Immortality, see Future life.'
Incarnation, the, its relation to
Scripture, 12 foll.; analogy sug-
gested by, 15 foll.

Individuality, idea of, in the Old
Testament, 90 foll., 175.

Inspiration, meaning of, 22 foll.;
prophetic, 274 foll.

Irenaeus, 3, 81, 436; quoted, 65,
166, 213. 246.

Isaac, sacrifice of, 177.
Isaiah, teaching of, 292.
Ishsheh, 234.

Israel, early history of, 134; social
condition of, in eighth century B.C.,
282.

Jacob, the blessing of (Gen. xlix),
297.

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